Xaero

Inteligência Artificial

361 posts neste tópico

O que vai acontecer quando uma IA morrer? Os bits dela vão para o céu/inferno? Reencarnam numa IA em construção?

Uma IA pode atingir o nirvana?

Uma IA poderá ter poderes paranormais? Sair do console e ver seu "corpo" sobre a mesa?

(Desculpem-me o besteirol, mas eu não aguento!)

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Besteirol nada, já tem pastor avaliando a futura clientela. Tem potencial. :P

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Pra quem manja Inglês, nesse vídeo desse ano, 2017, duas IAs (chatbots) conversam entre si (hilário!):

 

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Será q algum dia vão criar gêneros de IA? :P

Computador e computadora teriam preferencias e gostos diferentes. A boneca cibernética teria q ser de gênero feminino adequada a um usuário. Bom, essa é uma tarefa q dever ser pensada seriamente no desenvolvimento da IA ...

 

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Vinte e um anos depois do Deep Blue, da IBM, vencer o chessmaster (mestre do xadrez) Garry Kasparov, agora outra máquina, AlphaGo, da Google, vence um mestre de outro jogo de tabuleiro, o Go, que é considerado o jogo de tabuleiro mais complexo que existe (muito mais do que o xadrez).

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-4540544/Google-AI-defeats-master-ancient-Chinese-board-game-Go.html

Google's 'godlike' AlphaGo AI defeats the world's best Go player in the second of three matches

  • AlphaGo stunned observers last year by trouncing a South Korean grandmaster
  • This is the second time Google's Deep Mind AI has faced a master in public
  • The software beat Ke Jie, 19, by half a point in their first match on Tuesday
  • The AI took an unassailable 2-0 lead in their second showdown today

By REUTERS and TIM COLLINS FOR MAILONLINE

PUBLISHED: 09:33 BST, 25 May 2017 | UPDATED: 10:03 BST, 25 May 2017

 

Google's artificial intelligence program AlphaGo has beaten a master of the ancient Chinese strategy game Go for the second time.

The victory was part of a three match event taking place this week that is meant to test the limits of computers in taking on humans at complex tasks.

Ke Jie the 19-year-old Chinese world number one, anointed the program as the new 'Go god' after his defeat.

It is a feather in the cap for Google's parent company Alphabet's ambitions in the artificial intelligence arena, as it looks to woo Beijing to gain re-entry into the country.

AlphaGo beat Ke Jie, 19, (left) taking an unassailable 2-0 lead in a best of three series being held at in the eastern Chinese water town of Wuzhen. AlphaGo faces off against Ke Jie once more on Saturday
 

AlphaGo beat Ke Jie, 19, (left) taking an unassailable 2-0 lead in a best of three series being held at in the eastern Chinese water town of Wuzhen. AlphaGo faces off against Ke Jie once more on Saturday

MAN VS MACHINE 

AlphaGo beat master player Ke Jie, 19, for the second time today, taking an unassailable 2-0 lead in a best of three series being held at in the eastern Chinese water town of Wuzhen.

Go is a highly complex board game dating back thousands of years that involves two contestants placing black and white stones on a grid. 

It is popular in Asian countries and most top-ranked players hail from China, Japan and South Korea.

Internet users outside China could watch the games live but Chinese censors blocked most mainland web users from seeing the Google website carrying the feed.

None of China's dozens of video sites carried the live broadcasts but a recording of Tuesday's game was available Wednesday night on one of the most popular sites, Youku.com. 

 

AlphaGo beat Ke Jie taking an unassailable 2-0 lead in a best of three series being held at  in the eastern Chinese water town of Wuzhen.

The victory over the world's top player, which many thought would take decades to achieve, comes after the AI program from Google's DeepMind unit bested South Korean Go professional Lee Sedol in a similar exhibition match last year.

'For the first 100 moves it was the closest we've ever seen anyone play against the Master version of AlphaGo,' DeepMind CEO Demis Hassabis said in the post-game press conference.

'Today's game was different from the first,' Ke said. 'AlphaGo made some moves which were opposite from my vision of how to maximize the possibility of winning. I also thought I was very close to winning the game in the middle but maybe that's not what AlphaGo was thinking. I'm a little bit sad, it's a bit of a regret because I think I played pretty well.'

AlphaGo faces off against Ke Jie once more on Saturday.

Go is a highly complex board game dating back thousands of years that involves two contestants placing black and white stones on a grid. 

It is popular in Asian countries and most top-ranked players hail from China, Japan and South Korea.  

Internet users outside China could watch the games live but Chinese censors blocked most mainland web users from seeing the Google website carrying the feed. 

None of China's dozens of video sites carried the live broadcasts but a recording of Tuesday's game was available Wednesday night on one of the most popular sites, Youku.com.

State media reports on the games have been brief, possibly reflecting Beijing's antipathy toward Google, which closed its China-based search engine in 2010 following a dispute over censorship and computer hacking.

Go is a highly complex board game dating back thousands of years that involves two contestants placing black and white stones on a grid. AlphaGo faces off against Ke Jie (pictured left) once more on Saturday
 

Go is a highly complex board game dating back thousands of years that involves two contestants placing black and white stones on a grid. AlphaGo faces off against Ke Jie (pictured left) once more on Saturday

Internet users outside China could watch the game (pictured) live but Chinese censors blocked most mainland web users from seeing the Google website carrying the feed.
 

Internet users outside China could watch the game (pictured) live but Chinese censors blocked most mainland web users from seeing the Google website carrying the feed.

HOW ALPHAGO WORKS

Traditional AI methods, which construct a search tree over all possible positions, don't have a chance when it comes to winning at Go.

So DeepMind took a different approach by building a system, AlphaGo, that combines an advanced tree search with deep neural networks.

These neural networks take a description of the Go board as an input and process it through 12 different network layers containing millions of neuron-like connections.

One neural network called the 'policy network,' selects the next move to play, while the other neural network - the 'value network' - predicts the winner of the game.

'We trained the neural networks on 30 million moves from games played by human experts, until it could predict the human move 57 per cent of the time,' Google said.

The previous record before AlphaGo was 44 per cent.

Traditional AI methods, which construct a search tree over all possible positions, don't have a chance when it comes to winning at Go (pictured)
 
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Traditional AI methods, which construct a search tree over all possible positions, don't have a chance when it comes to winning at Go (pictured)

However, Google DeepMind's goal is to beat the best human players, not just mimic them.

To do this, AlphaGo learned to discover new strategies for itself, by playing thousands of games between its neural networks and adjusting the connections using a trial-and-error process known as reinforcement learning.

Of course, all of this requires a huge amount of computing power and Google used its Cloud Platform.

To put AlphaGo to the test, the firm held a tournament between AlphaGo and the strongest other Go programs, including Crazy Stone and Zen.

AlphaGo won every game against these programs.

The program then took on reigning three-time European Go champion Fan Hui at Google's London office.

In a closed-doors match last October, AlphaGo won by five games to zero.

It was the first time a computer program has ever beaten a professional Go player.

In the game, two players take turns to place black or white stones on a square grid, with the goal being to dominate the board by surrounding the opponent's pieces
 
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In the game, two players take turns to place black or white stones on a square grid, with the goal being to dominate the board by surrounding the opponent's pieces

 

The official response to the match, a major event for go and artificial intelligence, reflects the conflict between the ruling Communist Party's technology ambitions and its insistence on controlling what its public can see, hear and read.

The possible reason for suppressing coverage while allowing Google to organize the event was unclear. 

Censorship orders to Chinese media are officially secret and government officials refuse to confirm whether online material is blocked. 

The AI software also beat the master player by half a point on Tuesday, snatching victory by the narrowest margin possible in the game, a characteristic trait of the AI's style of play.

Go is favoured by AI researchers because of the large number of outcomes compared to other games such as western chess.

AlphaGo faces off against Ke Jie (pictured) once more on Saturday, but its second victory today gives the AI software an unassailable lead 
 

AlphaGo faces off against Ke Jie (pictured) once more on Saturday, but its second victory today gives the AI software an unassailable lead 

According to Google there are more potential positions in a Go game than atoms in the universe.

Speaking ahead of the matches Demis Hassabis, founder of London-based DeepMind which developed AlphaGo, said 'AlphaGo's successes hint at the possibility for general AI to be applied to a wide range of tasks and areas, to perhaps find solutions to problems that we as human experts may not have considered.'   

Mr Lee's loss in Seoul last March marked the first time a computer programme had beaten a top player in a full match of the 3,000-year-old Chinese board game, and has been hailed as a landmark event in the development of AI.

After AlphaGo flattened Mr Lee, Mr Ke declared he would never lose to the machine.

'Bring it on,' he said on China's Twitter-like Weibo, but he has tempered his bravado since then.

 State media reports on the game (pictured) have been brief, possibly reflecting Beijing's antipathy toward Google, which closed its China-based search engine in 2010 following a dispute over censorship and computer hacking. 
 

State media reports on the game (pictured) have been brief, possibly reflecting Beijing's antipathy toward Google, which closed its China-based search engine in 2010 following a dispute over censorship and computer hacking. 

Go is favoured by AI researchers because of the large number of outcomes compared to other games such as western chess. Ke Jie (pictured) is the world's best player 
 

Go is favoured by AI researchers because of the large number of outcomes compared to other games such as western chess. Ke Jie (pictured) is the world's best player 

According to Google there are more potential positions in a Go game than atoms in the universe. Mr Ke (pictured) was among many top Chinese players who were defeated in online contests in January by a mysterious adversary who reportedly won 60 straight victories
 

According to Google there are more potential positions in a Go game than atoms in the universe. Mr Ke (pictured) was among many top Chinese players who were defeated in online contests in January by a mysterious adversary who reportedly won 60 straight victories

Mr Ke was among many top Chinese players who were defeated in online contests in January by a mysterious adversary who reportedly won 60 straight victories.

That opponent, cheekily calling itself 'The Master', was later revealed by DeepMind to have been an updated AlphaGo.

'Even that was not AlphaGo's best performance,' Gu Li, a past national champion, told Chinese state media last week.

'It would be very hard for Ke to play against it, but then again, Ke has also been working extremely hard to change his methods in preparation. 

'I hope he can play well.'

AI has previously beaten humans in cerebral contests, starting with IBM's Deep Blue defeating chess grandmaster Garry Kasparov in 1997.

Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo first faced the world's top-ranked Go player, China's 19-year-old Ke Jie (left), in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI in their first match (pictured), held on Tuesday
 

Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo first faced the world's top-ranked Go player, China's 19-year-old Ke Jie (left), in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI in their first match (pictured), held on Tuesday

AI has previously beaten humans in cerebral contests, starting with IBM's Deep Blue defeating chess grandmaster Garry Kasparov in 1997. Mr Ke (left) lost Tuesday's match (pictured) by half a point, the narrowest margin possible in the game
 

AI has previously beaten humans in cerebral contests, starting with IBM's Deep Blue defeating chess grandmaster Garry Kasparov in 1997. Mr Ke (left) lost Tuesday's match (pictured) by half a point, the narrowest margin possible in the game

But AlphaGo's win last year is considered the most significant win for AI yet. 

AlphaGo uses two sets of 'deep neural networks' containing millions of connections similar to neurons in the brain.

It is partly self-taught, having played millions of games against itself after initial programming.

The high-profile match comes amid a Chinese government push to compete internationally in artificial intelligence.

Baidu Inc, China's leading search firm which is developing projects parallel to Google in search and autonomous driving. 

In March, it launched an AI lab in cooperation with China's National Development and Reform Commission.

Google pulled its search engine from China seven years ago after it refused to self-censor internet searches, a requirement of the Chinese government. 

It has since been rendered inaccessible behind the country's firewall, maintaining only a limited presence through a joint venture in the country.

South Korean professional Go player Lee Sedol (right) puts the first stone against Google's artificial intelligence program last March. AlphaGo  stunned the world last year by trouncing South Korean grandmaster four games to one (stock image)
 

South Korean professional Go player Lee Sedol (right) puts the first stone against Google's artificial intelligence program last March. AlphaGo stunned the world last year by trouncing South Korean grandmaster four games to one (stock image)

It previously announced plans to bring some services back to the country, including its app store Google Play.

In March Google announced Chinese users would be able to access the Translate mobile app, marking its most recent success launching a previously banned service. 

Like AlphaGo, Translate also uses DeepMind's artificial intelligence software.

THE HISTORY OF THE GAME OF GO 

The game of Go originated in China more than 2,500 years ago. 

Confucius wrote about the game, and it is considered one of the four essential arts required of any true Chinese scholar. 

Played by more than 40 million people worldwide, the rules of the game are simple.

Players take turns to place black or white stones on a board, trying to capture the opponent's stones or surround empty space to make points of territory. 

The game is played primarily through intuition and feel and because of its beauty, subtlety and intellectual depth, it has captured the human imagination for centuries.

The game of Go (pictured) originated in China more than 2,500 years ago. Confucius wrote about the game, and it is considered one of the four essential arts required of any true Chinese scholar
 
  •  
 

The game of Go (pictured) originated in China more than 2,500 years ago. Confucius wrote about the game, and it is considered one of the four essential arts required of any true Chinese scholar

But as simple as the rules are, Go is a game of profound complexity. 

There are 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 possible positions - that's more than the number of atoms in the universe, and more than a googol (10 to the power of 100) times larger than chess.

This complexity is what makes Go hard for computers to play and therefore an irresistible challenge to artificial intelligence researchers, who use games as a testing ground to invent smart, flexible algorithms that can tackle problems, sometimes in ways similar to humans.

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Bad machine. :angry:

Um dia desses precisaremos transcender a máquina. :P

 

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A inteligência artificial é interessante, daqui anos poderemos ter robôs trabalhando como pessoas normais, andando nas ruas ou ate em nossas casas, temos vários filmes, series e livros desse tipo, não duvido que este ano chegara, mesmo que leve pouco ou muito tempo, porem não estamos obsoletos(ainda), nós criamos as maquinas com inteligência porem nosso cérebro é como plástico, não perdemos nada dentro dele, ele apenas se adapta para trabalhar melhor, uma pessoa para de escrever com a Mao direita o cerebro ira ativar sua outra metade para começar a escrever com a esquerda, uma I.A não conseguiria fazer isso, apenas se NÓS a construíssemos desta maneira. Não discordo dos posts anteriores ou futuros, só digo que ainda não estamos obsoletos. 

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3 horas atrás, NameIsDino Ssaur disse:

A inteligência artificial é interessante, daqui anos poderemos ter robôs trabalhando como pessoas normais, andando nas ruas ou ate em nossas casas,

Pois é, hoje temos pessoas normais trabalhando e vivendo como robôs. :P

 

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À exemplo do conto "Coisas" de José Saramago, é possível nalgum futuro que os humanos "coisifiquem-se" (ainda mais) e as "coisas", i.e. as máquinas, "humanizem-se".

The Robots do Kraftwerk "ao vivo" (adoro a ironia do grupo aqui):

 

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59 minutos atrás, Atik Yomin disse:

(adoro a ironia do grupo aqui):

Quanta ironia tem na ategria ...

Quanta teologia tem na ideologia ...

Quanta mitologia tem na mercadoria ...

Os deuses se divertem .:P

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O que acham disso?

 

Tecnologia pode criar elite de super-humanos e massa de 'inúteis', diz autor de best-seller

6 maio 2017

Yuval Noah Harari

O israelense Yuval Harari investiga a relação entre história e biologia, as diferenças essenciais entre o ser humano e outros animais e o rumo da história humana

Os avanços em tecnologia, genética e inteligência artificial podem transformar a desigualdade econômica em desigualdade biológica? O autor e historiador Yuval Noah Harari se fez essa pergunta.

Professor de História na Universidade Hebraica de Jerusalém, ele estuda o passado para olhar para o futuro. Autor de dois best-sellers, Sapiens: Uma breve história da humanidade (editora L&PM) e Homo Deus: Uma breve história do amanhã (editora Companhia das Letras), Harari foi entrevistado pelo programa The Inquiry, da BBC, sobre a possibilidade de a tecnologia alterar o mundo e a espécie humana.

Leia o depoimento do professor à BBC:

"A desigualdade existe há no mínimo 30 mil anos. Os caçadores-coletores eram mais igualitários do que as sociedades subsequentes. Eles tinham poucas propriedades, e propriedade é um pré-requisito para desigualdade de longo prazo. Mas até eles tinham hierarquias.

Nos séculos 19 e 20, porém, algo mudou. Igualdade tornou-se um valor dominante na cultura humana em quase todo o mundo. Por quê?

Foi em parte devido à ascensão de novas ideologias como o humanismo, o liberalismo e o socialismo.

Mas também se tratava de mudanças tecnológicas e econômicas - que estavam ligadas a essas novas ideologias, claro.

De repente, a elite começou a precisar de um grande número de pessoas saudáveis e educadas para servir como soldados nos exércitos e como trabalhadores nas fábricas.

Os governos não forneciam educação e vacinação porque eram bondosos. Eles precisavam que as massas fossem úteis. Mas agora isso está mudando novamente.

 

Molécula com estrutura espiral de DNA com uma conexção destacada contra um fundo escuroEngenharia genética é hoje disseminada. Até onde ela poderá evoluir?

Os melhores exércitos da atualidade demandam poucos soldados, mas altamente treinados e com equipamentos de alta tecnologia.

As fábricas também estão cada vez mais automatizadas.

Esse é um dos motivos pelos quais poderemos - num futuro não tão distante - ver a criação das sociedades mais desiguais que já existiram na história humana. E há outros motivos para temer esse futuro.

Com rápidos avanços em biotecnologia e bioengenharia, nós podemos chegar a um ponto em que, pela primeira vez na história, desigualdade econômica se torne desigualdade biológica.

Até agora, humanos tinham controle sobre o mundo ao seu redor. Eles podiam controlar rios, florestas, animais e plantas. Mas eles tinham muito pouco controle do mundo dentro deles.

Eles tinham capacidade limitada de manipular seus próprios corpos, cérebros e mentes. Eles não podiam evitar a morte. Talvez esse não seja sempre o caso.

 

Renderização em 3D de um robô humanoide tentando solucionar um quebra-cabeça tridimensionalInteligência artificial está sendo vista como uma ameaça a levas de empregos humanos

Há duas maneiras principais de aprimorar humanos: ou você altera algo em sua estrutura biológica por meio de alteração de seu DNA, ou - o jeito mais radical - você combina partes orgânicas e inorgânicas, talvez conectando diretamente cérebros e computadores.

Os ricos - ao adquirir tais melhorias biológicas - poderiam se tornar literalmente melhores que os demais: mais inteligentes, saudáveis e com vidas mais longas.

Nesse ponto, será facil que essa classe "aprimorada" tenha poder. Pense desta forma: no passado, a nobreza tentou convencer as massas que eles eram superiores a todos os outros e que deveriam deter o poder. No futuro que estou descrevendo, eles realmente serão superiores às massas.

E como eles serão melhores que nós, fará mais sentido ceder a eles o poder e a prerrogativa de tomada de decisões.

 

Um circuito de computador imaginadoPoderiam aqueles que controlam dados e algoritmos tornar-se a superclasse do futuro?

Podemos também constatar que a ascensão da inteligência artificial - e não apenas automação - pode significar que grandes contingentes de pessoas, em todos os tipos de emprego, simplesmente perderão sua utilidade econômica.

Os dois processos casados - aprimoramento humano e ascensão de inteligência artificial - podem resultar na separação da humanidade em uma pequena classe de super-humanos e uma gigantesca subclasse de pessoas "inúteis".

Eis um exemplo concreto: pense no mercado de transporte.

Há centenas de motoristas de caminhões, táxis e ônibus no Reino Unido. Cada um deles comanda uma pequena parte do mercado de transporte, e todos ganham poder político em função disso. Eles podem se sindicalizar e, se o governo faz algo que não gostam, eles podem fazer uma greve e travar todo o sistema.

Agora, avance 30 anos no tempo. Todos os veículos conduzem a si próprios e uma corporação controla o algoritmo que comanda todo o mercado de transporte.

Todo o poder econômico e político previamente compartilhado por milhares agora está nas mãos de uma única corporação.

 

Jogo conceitual com peões laranjas e um peão azul

Ricos, diz autor, poderiam adquirir melhorias biológicas e se tornar literalmente melhores que os demais: mais inteligentes, saudáveis e longevos

Depois que você perde sua importância econômica, o Estado perde ao menos um pouco do incentivo de investir em saúde, educação e bem-estar.

Seu futuro dependeria da boa vontade de uma pequena elite.

Talvez haja boa vontade mas, em tempo de de crise - como uma catástrofe climática -, seria muito fácil te descartar.

Tecnologia não é determinista. Ainda podemos fazer algo para lidar com tudo isso. Mas acho que deveríamos estar cientes de que descrevo um futuro possível. Se não gostamos dessa possibilidade, precisamos agir antes que seja tarde.

Existe mais um passo possível no caminho rumo à desigualdade previamente inimaginável.

A curto prazo, a autoridade pode se centrar em uma pequena elite que detenha e controle os algoritmos e os dados que os alimentam. A longo prazo, porém, a autoridade poderá se transferir completamente dos humanos aos algoritmos.

Quando uma inteligência artificial for mais inteligente que nós, toda a humanidade poderá se tornar inútil.

O que aconteceria depois disso? Não temos nenhuma ideia - literalmente não podemos imaginar. Como poderíamos? Estamos falando de uma inteligência muito maior do que a que a humanidade possui."

http://www.bbc.com/portuguese/geral-39752430

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